Teaching Urban Learners

Culturally Responsive Strategies for Developing Academic and Behavioral Competence
Pages: 232
ISBN: 9780878225545
Item Number: 5269

$25.49You save $4.50 (15.01%)

This valuable resource is divided into four parts: (1) culturally responsive instruction, (2) effective academic instruction, (3) improving social competencies, and (4) parental involvement.

Recommended for K-5 classroom teachers, special educators, and counseling staff, this book’s 11 chapters detail important strategies, such as providing effective academic interventions; teaching with high expectations; keeping students academically engaged in meaningful learning activities; monitoring progress; providing effective schoolwide behavioral interventions; and establishing positive relationships with families. The authors provide case examples and step-by-step instructions to help educators apply the strategies presented.

Research shows that many poor children come to school unprepared for the academic and behavioral demands of the classroom. Their language and readiness skills are substantially behind those of their more affluent peers. As time goes by, many students fall progressively further and further behind and face an ever-widening achievement gap. They are often placed in special education classes and are disproportionately impacted by disciplinary referrals, suspensions, and expulsions. This is especially the case for African American males.

This book is the result of the authors’ intensive consulting and research in inner-city elementary schools.

Book Reviews

“Each chapter in this well-written text follows a user-friendly format that includes applications of the strategy, a rationale for its implementation, definitions where helpful, descriptions of effective pedagogy, and the benefits to students. Additionally, each chapter offers realistic timetables (e.g., daily, weekly, grading period) for each strategy’s implementation sequence, and a generous list of hard copy and/or electronic resources for further reading and suggestions.”

Mary Ransdell, Ed. D., Education Book Review

“Building from their work in urban schools, Cartledge (special education, Ohio State Univ.) and Lo (special education, Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte) write for educators striving to reduce referrals for discipline and special education (which they define as emotional disturbances). They cover culturally responsive instruction, describing urban learners and beginning reading instruction, effective academic instruction leading to proficiency through such devises as response cards, repeating reading and peer tutoring, improving social competencies through behavior management, social skills instruction, individualized behavior intervention plans and school-wide behavior systems, and improving parent involvement, They provide case examples, step-by-step instructions and support materials and forms.”

Reference & Research Book News

Part One: Culturally Responsive Instruction

1. Urban Learners

  • The Needs of Urban Learners
  • What Are Effective Urban Schools?
  • Benefits of Effective Urban Schools
  • Effective Strategies for Teachers
  • Related Internet Resources

2. Beginning Reading Instruction

  • The Scope of the Problem
  • Why Is Reading Important?
  • Reading Instruction for Urban Learners
  • Phonological Awareness
  • Big Ideas of Reading
  • Prevention and Effective Reading Instruction
  • Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills
  • The Importance of Literature
  • Effective Strategies for Teachers
  • Related Internet Resources
  • Sample Multicultural Books for Urban Early Learners
  • Teacher Resources

Part Two: Effective Academic Instruction

3. Principles of Effective Instruction

  • Importance of Effective Instruction
  • What Is Effective Academic Instruction?
  • Importance of Effective Academic Instruction for Urban Learners
  • Benefits of Effective Academic Instruction
  • Incorporating Effective Academic Instruction in Your Classroom
  • Effective Strategies for Teachers
  • Related Readings
  • Related Internet Resources

4. Academic Proficiency Through Response Cards

  • Why Use Response Cards?
  • What Are Response Cards?
  • Why Response Cards for Urban Learners?
  • Benefits of Using Response Cards
  • Incorporating Response Cards in Your Classroom
  • Effective Strategies for Teachers
  • Related Internet Resources

5. Academic Proficiency Through Peer Tutoring

  • Why Use Peer Tutoring?
  • What Is Peer Tutoring?
  • Why Peer Tutoring for Urban Learners?
  • Benefits of Peer Tutoring
  • Incorporating Peer Tutoring in Your Classroom
  • Effective Strategies for Teachers
  • Related Internet Resources

6. Oral Reading Fluency Through Repeated Reading

  • Why Use Repeated Reading?
  • What Is Repeated Reading?
  • Building Oral Reading Fluency in Urban Learners
  • Benefits of Repeated Reading
  • Incorporating Repeated Reading in Your Classroom
  • Effective Strategies for Teachers
  • Related Internet Resources

Part Three: Improving Social Competencies

7. Behavior Management

  • Why Explicit Training in Behavior Management?
  • What Is Behavior Management?
  • Importance of Behavior Management for Urban Learners
  • Importance of Behavior Management to Teachers
  • Creating Positive Environments for Urban Learners
  • Effective Strategies for Teachers
  • Related Internet Resources

8. Social Skills Instruction

  • Why Teach Social Skills?
  • What Is Social Skills Instruction?
  • Social Skills Needs of Urban Learners
  • Incorporating Social Skills Instruction in Your Classroom
  • Effective Strategies for Teachers
  • Related Internet Resources

9. Individualized Behavior Intervention Plans

  • Why Individualized Behavior Intervention Plans?
  • What Are Individualized Behavior Intervention Plans?
  • Behavioral Needs of Urban Learners
  • Benefits of Behavioral Assessments and Interventions
  • Effective Strategies for Teachers
  • Related Readings
  • Related Internet Resources

10. Schoolwide Behavior System

  • Why Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions?
  • What Is Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support?
  • Benefits of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support
  • Incorporating Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports in Your School
  • Effective Strategies for Teachers
  • Related Readings
  • Related Internet Resources

Part Four: Parent Involvement

11. Working with Urban Parents

  • What Is Parent Involvement?
  • Parents in Urban and Low-Performing Schools
  • How Teachers Benefit by Working with Parents
  • Collaboration Between Parents and Schools
  • Effective Strategies for Teachers
  • Strategies to Build Positive Relationships with Families
  • Strategies to Train Parents to Provide Home-Based Instruction
  • Strategies for Dealing with Parents Who Do Not Speak English
  • Related Readings
  • Related Internet Resources

It may be argued that the stage for poor school performance is set at birth for impoverished children of color, but good evidence suggests that we can ward off later school problems through early identification and academic intervention. There may be a critical period for children to learn to read, probably within the period of four to eight years of age.

Children benefit from the frequent presentation of learning materials that enable them to process information quickly and easily. Many general educators insist that early childhood classrooms need only employ “developmentally appropriate” practices, and the reading skills of these children will eventually emerge (Hettleman, 2003). These educators often emphasize “literacy rich” environments where children learn to read as a result of being exposed to and enjoying the written word. The problem for underperforming minority children is that these indirect approaches fail to incorporate the teaching urgency they need to catch up far enough to make the requisite reading progress.

As noted previously, specialized services often are not made available until the intermediate grades (or later), when the student is several grade levels behind and reading disabilities are accompanied by behavior problems. Specialized interventions tend to be less beneficial for students beyond the primary grades.

Despite some debate about the most appropriate reading approaches, few question that the process for learning to read begins early in a child’s life. From infancy on, young children in literacy-rich homes begin to make associations with sounds, vocabularies, and printed materials that make them ripe for reading at the point of formal school entry. Typically deprived of this critical exposure, impoverished urban learners need preschool, kindergarten, and first-grade experiences to make up for this loss. They need explicit and systematic instruction in the key elements that are universally accepted as the basic foundation of reading instruction: Phonemic Awareness, Alphabetic Principle, Fluency with Text, Vocabulary, and Comprehension.

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